Fourth Element Fourth Element


Explore the Defiance Wreck in Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

On October 20, 1854, the schooner Defiance was sailing through a foggy Lake Huron night south to Buffalo, New York. Just after one o’clock in the morning, the wooden two-master crashed into the bark J.J. Audubon. Both vessels were fatally injured and sank within a few miles of one another, halfway between Presque Isle & Thunder Bay Island.

Today, the Defiance is remarkably preserved with its two masts still standing and little damage to the hul.

Wreck History

The story of the Defiance and Audubon capture a dramatic moment during the 1850s when the push for speed on the Great Lakes led to more wrecks than ever before. In the fall of 1854, ship owners and sailors were reeling from the most costly season to date: 119 lives, 70 ships and 2 million dollars in property losses.

In the 1800s, Lake Huron’s “upbound” and “downbound” sailing routes converged as they passed Thunder Bay. Ships passed dangerously close to each other as they tried to shave valuable time off their voyages. The drive for greater profit also resulted in faster vessels, like the brig John J. Audubon. In 1854, the brand-new ship sailed from Chicago to Buffalo in an impressive five days. Before the year was over, however, Lake Huron’s tight sailing lanes and the Audubon’s own speed would prove a tragic combination.

Built in 1848, the Defiance hauled corn and wheat for six years before meeting its tragic demise in Thunder Bay. At 115 feet, the two-masted schooner had a gross tonnage of 253 tons and was relatively small for a cargo vessel of the time. The press for speed and profit encouraged risk-taking, such as sailing blind on a foggy night.

On October 20, 1854, the Audubon sailed north to Chicago with a load of iron railroad track. At 1:30 a.m., the southbound Defiance emerged from the darkness and fog, striking the Audubon’s mid-section. In spite of the speed with which both vessels sank, lifeboats were deployed and both crews survived.

Click here to

Diving the Wreck

Today, the Defiance rests intact in 185 feet of water, quite literally frozen in time. The Audubon lies only a few miles away. World-renowned explorers Dr. Robert Ballard and Jean-Michel Cousteau have studied the pair of wrecks, helping to bring national attention to these underwater historical treasures.

With thanks to NOAA and the team at Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

Click here to close.

defiance noaa marine

Defiance 3D Wreck Tour

The 2D and 3D visualisations are intended as a guide only and does not pretent to be entirely accurate. Always research/plan your dive with care and always dive within your limits. You are not authorised to reproduce/publish any content from this website online or in print without permission. Copyright - Mike Postons/3DeepMedia.

2d shipwreck

2D Map

Defiance Wreck Specs

Max Depth: 56m (185 feet)

Location: Thunder Bay - Lake Huron

Length: 35 metres (115 feet)

Description: On October 20. 1854. the schooner Defiance crashed into the bark J.J. Audubon. Both were fatally injured and sank within a few miles of one another, halfway between Presque Isle and Thunder Bay Island.

Image Gallery

  • defiance 1
  • defiance 2
  • defiance 3
  • defiance 4
  • defiance 5
  • defiance 6
  • defiance 7
  • defiance 8
  • defiance 9
  • defiance 10
  • defiance 11

Defiance Wreck Video

Defiance Project Credits

3deep - 3D Shipwreck Mapping, Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

Other Thunder Bay 3D Wrecks

back arrowBack to Thunder Bay Wrecks